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All archaeological studies and excavations indicate that the history of Iranian architecture dates back to about the seventh millennium BC. Since then, this art has been constantly evolving in relation to various issues.
Iranian architecture has features that are of special value compared to the architecture of other countries in the world, features such as proper design, accurate calculations, correct form of covering, observance of technical and scientific issues in the building, high porches, tall columns, and finally various decorations, each of which at the same time simply represents the glory of Iranian architecture. Iranian and non-Iranian scholars have considered the positive position of space, or in other words, “space-oriented”, as the most important feature of Iranian architecture versus “volumetric”. In Iranian architecture, despite the features such as the fit and beauty of the gates, domes and porches, the feature that is most worthy of study is the essence of Iranian architecture and its mathematical and mystical logic. The introversion and tendency of Iranian architects towards courtyards, padiavs, garden pits, porches and pergolas that surround the naves has long been part of Iranian logic.
Before Persepolis was built, hundreds of porches and naves with wooden and stone columns were built all over the civilized world of that day, but for the first time in Persepolis we see that the columns are as far apart as possible, although in some ancient temples outside of Iran (for example, Egypt) the distance between the two pillars is something like their diameter, but a little less. In Iranian architecture, much attention has been paid to light and illumination, and darkness has largely been avoided and the use of local materials in construction has been considered. The Iranian architect has placed great emphasis on strength and durability and the observance of structural principles, and it seems that historic buildings and structures have been built for a very long period of use and use.
If you are interested in the history of Iranian architecture, you can read more about Iranian architectural styles in each period of history. Iranian art and architecture has several principles that are well reflected in the examples of this art. These principles are: populism, avoiding futility, selfishness, self-sufficiency and introversion.
Populism: This means that the fit between the building and the human organs, for example the door and the window, the ledge and the sling used for the bed storage, were all the right size.
Avoiding futility: In Iranian architecture, they avoided useless work and extravagance in construction. In fact, all the paintings in the building were done for a reason; For example, if doors and windows were knotted with wood or plaster and stained glass, it is to provide shelter from the scorching and sometimes scorching sun.
Selfishness: The role of statics, building technology and building (materials) is called.
Self-sufficiency: Iranian architects tried to get the materials they needed from the nearest places; This is because the construction work was done more quickly and the building became more compatible with nature.
Introversion: Usually, people’s beliefs have been very effective in arranging building spaces. One of the beliefs of the Iranian people is to value personal life and respect, which has made it introverted in Iranian architecture.
Iranian Architectural Stylistics
Iranian architecture is divided into 6 styles: Persian, Parthian, Khorasani, Razi, Azeri and Isfahani, which in each period, the principles of architecture with a different shape and appearance have been used.
Persian architectural style: The first style of architecture that covers the period from the Achaemenid period to Alexander’s invasion to Iran, ie the sixth century BC to the fourth century, and its name is derived from the Persian people. Of course, before the Persian period, it has been studied by researchers in the history of architecture, which is before the arrival of the Aryans and among the remnants of the pre-Persian period are Zagheh Hill, Silk Hill and Choghaznabil Ziggurat. After that, the Median civilization in Hegmataneh and then with the arrival of the Aryans, the Persian period begins
Parthian architectural style: The Parthian style appeared after Alexander’s invasion to Iran and has been followed in the Parthian, Sassanid, early Islamic and in some places even after Islam until the third and fourth centuries AH.
Khorasani architectural style: Of the six styles of Iranian architecture, the Persian and Parthian belonged to before Islam and four are Khorasani, Razi, Azeri and Isfahani belonged to after Islam. Khorasani style started in the first century AH and continued until the fourth century AH. What can be seen about the culture of this time is that cultural changes occur mostly in Khorasan and from there it has reached cities such as Damghan, Yazd, etc.
Razi architectural style: Razi style is the fourth architectural style of Iran that starts from the time of Al-Ziyar and continues during the time of Al-Buwayh, Seljuk, Atabakan and Khwarezmshahian; In this style, it has all the good features of the previous methods in the best way.
Azeri architectural style: The Azeri style has two periods, the first period from the time of Holago and the capital of Maragheh and the second period from the time of Timur and Samarkand capital. At that time, there was a need for various constructions and buildings that had to be prepared as soon as possible.
Isfahani architectural style: The native architecture of Azerbaijan has created three styles, Razi, Azeri and Isfahani. So the origin of this style was not the city of Isfahan, but it grew there and the best buildings grew there.